Arabic Numbers

Arabic Numbers

     Arabic numbers refer to numerals inscribed in the Arabic numeral system. In the recent times, it is the most popular system used in the representation of numbers. Ancient Arabs mathematicians developed the Arabic numeral system, which later the Persian and Arabic mathematicians in Baghdad adopted and helped to spread the numeral system further west and eventually across the world (Smith & Karpinski, 2013).  The Italian scholar Fibonacci developed the widely used form of the Arabic numerals in North Africa. Arabic numerals generally refer to the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In the tenth century, North African Arabic speakers introduced the ten numbers to Europe, thereby causing these numbers to be referred to as Arabic numerals, a term that has been used ever since.

                             Why Arabic Numbers Look Like This?!

The below table shows the Arabic numbers from Zero to Ten

The numerals used in English are of Arabic origin, but Arabs nowadays use the Hindi ones sometimes, because of business ties with India in past.

Arabic Numeral Arabic script Transliteration Number
0 صِفْر Sefr 0
1 واحِد waHed 1
2 اثنان / اِثْنَين ‘ethnaan/’ethnayn 2
3 ثَلاثَة thalatha 3
4 أَرْبَعَة ‘arbaAa 4
5 خَمْسة khamsa 5
6 سِتَّة set-ta 6
7 سَبْعَة sabAa 7
8 ثَمانِية thamaaneya 8
9 تِسْعَة tesAa 9
10 عَشَرَة Aashara 10

 

   Days of the week are mostly driven from numbers as per the following table.

Arabic Days of The Week

Arabic Transliteration English
يَوْم الأَحَد yawm mel-‘aHad Sunday
يَوْم الإثْنَيْن yawm el-ethnayn Monday
يَوْم الثُلاثاء yawm ethulathaa’ Tuesday
يَوْم الأرْبعاء yawm el-arbeAa’ Wednesday
يَوْم الخَميس yawm el-khamees Thursday
يَوْم الجُمعَة yawm el-jumuAa Friday
يَوْم السّبْت yawm as-sabt Saturday

     Before the fifth century AD, early mathematicians used to have difficulties in performing the most elementary calculations since the concept of zero had not yet been developed (Kaplan, 1999). However, in the fifth century AD Indian mathematicians were able to develop fully the concept of zero. However, civilizations around the world invented zero as a placeholder as history suggests, with the concept dating back as far as the Sumerians whom history regards as the first people to invent a counting system (Kaplan, 1999). The Sumerian system was dependent on the positional relativity of one symbol to another; therefore, to signify the placeholder zero, a pair of angled wedges was used.

     Through the Acadians, the Sumerian system passed on to the Babylonians, where the ambiguity of a placeholder was eliminated through the introduction of double-angled wedges to symbolize an empty column. The Babylonians, however, did not invent zero as a number; the Mayans adopted it as a placeholder in their intricate calendar systems though they never used zero in their calculations (Kaplan, 1999). History suggests that it was in India where the mathematical zero was developed; mainly due to the cultural and philosophical factors found in India, thereby expounding more on why other civilizations had not developed zero mathematically. Hindu mathematician Brahmagupta developed the concept where placing a dot underneath numbers symbolized zero though he does not take credit for developing the mathematical zero since records unearthed later date to a time before he used the dots to represent zero. The Bakhshali manuscript, dating back to the third century is proof that the usage of the mathematical zero in ancient India has been there for a while.


     Italian mathematician Fibonacci used the zero to perform calculations without the use of an abacus after it found its way to Europe through the Moorish conquest of Spain. Merchants used Fibonacci equations to balance their books and through the merchants, the zero spread across the world (Kaplan, 1999). Most religious leaders and the governments at the time were however suspicious of the mathematical zero and it faced opposition with some countries such as Italy banning its usage. However, merchants illegally and secretively used the number zero and it was inevitable to accept the usage of the mathematical zero, as its roots were deep since it became essential in balancing the merchants’ books.

     With the invention of the printing press came the acceptance of Arabic numerals in Europe. Nations such as Russia changed to Arabic numerals from Cyrillic numerals through Peter the Great and China through the Muslim Hui people during the Yuan dynasty (Selin, 2013). Inscriptions found on historic structures such as the tower of Heathfield church, Sussex in Britain indicate the spread use of the Arabic numerals.

Arabic ordinal numbers can be easily distinguished from the numbers used in counting. The table below includes the numbers first to twelve; they are presented together with the definite article. This is the form used in telling the time.

Click here to get some FREE Arabic numbers worksheets to start learning Arabic numerals 

Arabic Ordinal Numbers

The first al-‘aw-wal الأَوَّل
The second ath-thaani الثّاني
The third ath-thaaleth الثّالِث
The fourth ar-raabeA الرّابِع
The fifth al-khaames الخامِس
The sixth as-saades السّادِس
The seventh as-saabeA السّابِع
The eighth ath-thaamen الثّامِن
The ninth at-taaseA التّاسِع
The tenth al-Aaasher العاشِر
The eleventh al-Hadii Aashar الحادِي عَشَر
The twelfth ath-thaanii Aashar الثّاني عَشَر

Grammar usage

Arabic numbers when used with nouns are thought to be adjectives and for that reason, change accordingly. It’s quite probable your lesson on Arabic numerals will take you a bit of an opportunity to master. Arabic Numbers have various spellings based on the gender of the noun with which they’re used.

1-Please note that the number has got to have the same gender as the noun! As below:

Arabic Transliteration English
كتاب واحد ketaab waaHed One book
رِسالة واحدة resaala waaHeda One message
طالبـان اثنـان Taalebaan ethnaan Two (m)students
طالبـتان اثنـتان Taalebataan ethnataan Two (f)students

 

Arabic has a dual form which is used by adding ان-ين)) to the noun (Taaleb / Taalebaan or Taalebain) & طالب- طالبان the same thing with the feminine nouns by adding (ان-ين) with just one more thing the (Taa Marbuuta) at the end of the feminine noun (ة)becomes (taa maftuha) (ت) before adding the suffixes (_(ان-ينas in the above examples.

2- when you count from 3 to 10, use the plural for the counted nouns. For example:

thalaath say-yaraat, Aashar say-yaaraat

  ثلاث سيارات، عَشر سيارات.

 But after (10) use the singular nouns again, even for billions. For example:

  أَحَدَ عَشر سيارة؛ مليون سيارة      Ahada Aashar say-yaara, melyuun say-yaara

 

Arabic Numbers History

Hank unravels the fascinating yarn of how the world came to use the Arabic numerals — from the scholarship of ancient Hindu mathematicians, to Muslim scientist Al-Khwarizmi, to the merchants of medieval Italy.

 

Learning Arabic Numbers

In this Arabic lesson, you’ll learn how to count from 0 to 9 in Arabic numbers.

The Arabic numbers discussed in our article, Arabic numerals form the basis of the European number systems that are now widely used. H The story of this transmission isn’t, however, a simple one. The western and eastern portions of the Arabic world both saw separate developments of Indian numerals with relatively weak interaction between the two. By the west part of the Arabic world, we mean the regions that mainly North Africa and Spain. Transmission to Europe came through this Western Arab route, coming into Europe first through Spain.

There are other complications in the story; however, for it wasn’t merely that the Arabs took over the Indian number system. Slightly different number systems were used simultaneously in the Arabic world over a lengthy amount of time. For instance there were at least 3 various kinds of arithmetic utilized in Arab nations in the eleventh century: a system derived from counting on the fingers with the numerals written entirely in words, this finger reckoning arithmetic was the system used for by the company community, the sexagesimal system with numerals denoted by letters of the Arabic alphabet, and the arithmetic of the Indian numerals and fractions with the decimal place value system.

The first sign that the Arabic numerals were moving west comes from a source that precedes the rise of the Arab nations., of their subtle discoveries in astronomy, explorations that are more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians, and of their valuable methods of calculation which surpass description. The passage itself, of course, would suggest that few individuals in that part of the world knew something of the system. Severus Sebokht, as a Christian bishop, would have been intrigued in calculating the date of Easter. This might have encouraged him to find out about the astronomy works of the Indians, and in these, of course, he’d find the arithmetic of the nine symbols.

Ruthless Algebra Inventor Al Khwarizmi Strategies Exploited

The method of solving equations later evolved into a kind of math called algebra. He discovered new methods for solving quadratic equations with algebra whilst keeping the problems easy and simple to manipulate. In reality, algebra is the basics of every area of study today because of Al-Khwarizmi. The term algebra comes from the name of one of the fundamental operations with equations (al-jabr) described inside this book. Mathematics is a specific science that is usually defined as the best way to study patterns and structures’. As an educated scholar he’d expand the wisdom of mathematics, geography, astronomy, and cartography, together with our comprehension of calendars. Our understanding of ibn al-Haytham’s interaction with al-Hakim comes out of a range of sources, the most crucial of which is the writings of al-Qifti.

Al-muqabala is the procedure of bringing quantities of the identical type to the identical side of the equation. Jump to navigationJump to hunt For different people with the identical name, see Maslama. SPECULATIVE SCIENCE There’s no zero in Roman numerals. Balancing was done by subtracting the identical amount from each side of the equation. Often it is simply more about whether patrons have sufficient money. Despite the fact that there’s no Nobel Prize in Mathematics, the mathematical sciences are called the most exact sciences and a number of its century-old formulas are accustomed to this date. None of the fantastic achievements of contemporary science would be possible without the mathematisation of science and the growth of algebra

Al-Fakhri is regarded among the crucial works on the path that caused the last separation of algebra from geometry for a discipline in its own right. Al-Khwarizmi also was the very first to make an effort to find a measurement of the volume and circumference of the planet. Al-Khwarizmi then shows how to address the six standard kinds of equations. Al-Khwarizmi was among the best mathematicians ever lived. In the example of algebra, claims that al-Khwarizmi invented algebra aren’t sustainable. Registration is needed to take part in the workshop. Within this process, Al Khwarizmi created mathematical language that’s used throughout the planet.

The thought of using zero became popular in the west. Eventually these ideas were adapted in all Europe and the remainder of earth. It is crucial to understand exactly how significant this new idea was. The most important idea was supposed to introduce the number zero. It is actually the very first book on algebra. There isn’t much known about Khwarizmi’s life that may be recounted with absolute surety. All of them are able to be conveniently stored on an electronic tablet that suits into any bag.

Since a range of the numbers have just 1 form, it might be tough to ascertain to which noun the number belongs. The `number’ zero was invented in various cultures around the world at various times. Because negative numbers weren’t used, equations with negative solutions weren’t studied. Bigger numbers were constructed in the exact same sort of way. Another instance is an ancient Indian scroll known as the Bhakshali manuscript. A good instance of the challenges faced when attempting to introduce this system is a specific law in Italy that prohibited using Arabic numerals. His invention also brought forth quite a few debates, which result in a split between mathematicians.

The aforementioned discussion utilizes modern mathematical notation for the sorts of problems that the book discusses. Whether there are any problems with the download procedure, get in touch with the representatives of our customer support, and they’re going to answer all your questions. His support for science could have been partly due to his interest in astrology. As a consequence of his work the system was gradually adopted and today he’s considered an important player in the growth of modern mathematics. In addition, he developed the Hindu-Arabic numerical system used around the world these days and includes the idea of zero which was unknown in Roman mathematics. The very first option takes lots of time, and it’s not too convenient because not all books can be taken home.

References

Kaplan, R. (1999). The nothing that is: A natural history of zero. Oxford University Press.

Smith, D. E., & Karpinski, L. C. (2013). The Hindu-Arabic Numerals. Courier Corporation.

Selin, H. (Ed.). (2013). Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Springer Science & Business Media.